Upper Limb Joints are-
Articulation– within the distal end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula.
Characteristics of the joints-a plane variety of synovial joint; the shape of the articulation encourages the acromion to slide inferior to the clavicle during shoulder dislocation a condition that happens during the coracoclavicular ligament is torn.
Articulation- within the coracoid process of the scapula and the inferior surface of the lateral portion of the clavicle.
Characteristics of the joints- a type of syndesmosis joints; this joint provide durability to the acromioclavicular joint.
Articulation-within the clavicle with the sternum.
Characteristics of the joints-a synovial joint; its joint capsule is subdivided by a fibrous articular disc; it is strengthened by the interclavicular, sternoclavicular and costoclavicular ligaments; the sternoclavicular joint has the range of movement, but not the form, of a ball and socket joint.
Articulation-within the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial ball and socket joint; the glenoid labrum deepens the socket; glenohumeral ligaments reinforce the joint capsule anteriorly; the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle passes through the shoulder joint cavity; the shoulder joint is supported by the muscles of the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis); the joint is also known as the glenohumeral joint; it is frequently dislocated.
Radioulnar joint, distal
Articulation-within the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial pivot joint; this joint has a fibrocartilaginous articular disk that connects to the styloid process of the ulna and the medial side of the distal radius.
Radioulnar joint, proximal
Articulation-within the radius and ulna that is contained within the capsule of the elbow joint.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial pivot joint; it is the articulation within the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna which is completed by the annular ligament.
Articulation– within the distal humerus and the proximal radius and ulna.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial hinge joint; the elbow joint is a complex joint consisting of humeroradial, humeroulnar and proximal radioulnar articulations all within an articular capsule; it is strengthened by the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments.
Articulation– within the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of carpal bones.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial ellipsoid joint; two primary degrees of motion is permitted: abduction/adduction and flexion/extension – these motions are combined to create circumduction; the radius actually articulates with the articular disk which in turn articulates among the proximal row of carpal bones (lunate, scaphoid and triquetrum).
Radiocarpal (wrist) joint
Articulation-radius articulates among the proximal row of carpals,
Characteristics of the joints– synovial, ellipsoidal.
Carpometacarpal joint, finger
Articulation– within the distal carpal bones and the proximal ends of the metacarpal bones of the hand.
Characteristics of the joints– a plane variety of synovial joint; limited motion is permitted at the carpometacarpal joint; the carpometacarpal joint is reinforced by dorsal and palmar ligaments.
Carpometacarpal joint, thumb
Articulation-within the trapezium and the proximal end of the metacarpal bone of the thumb.
Characteristics of the joints-a synovial saddle joint, this articulation permits two planes of motion: abduction/adduction and flexion/extension which may be combined to produce circumduction.
Articulation-within the adjacent sides of the proximal ends of metacarpal bones 2-5.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial plane joint; limited motion is possible between at the carpometacarpal joints or in adjacent metacarpal bones.
Articulation-within the proximal and middle phalanges.
Characteristics of the joints– proximal interphalangeal joint, abbreviated PIP the middle and distal phalanges (distal interphalangeal joint, abbreviated DIP)a synovial hinge joint; these joints are strengthened by medial and lateral collateral ligaments.
Articulation-within the head of a metacarpal and the base of a proximal phalanx.
Characteristics of the joints– a synovial condyloid (or ellipsoid) joint; it is strengthened by medial and lateral collateral ligaments; the joint has two planes of motion: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction which motion may be combined to circumduction.
Mid carpal joint
Articulation-within the proximal and distal rows of carpal bones.
Characteristics of the joints– a series of synovial plane joints; small ranges of motion are permitted between carpal bones which take on an additive result because there are several articulations in a proximodistal row (wrist, mid-carpal, and carpometacarpal joints); the mid carpal and intercarpal joints are reinforced by numerous ligaments.