Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones): Thiazolidinediones, also distinguished as glitazones, are a group of oral anti-diabetic medications that may be practiced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are classed as oral hypoglycemic drugs along with metformin, they are taken once or twice daily with or without food. Glitazones also further lower blood pressure and enhance lipid metabolism by increasing levels of HDL (or ‘good cholesterol) cholesterol.
A thiazolidinedione may be suggested as a treatment for people with type 2 diabetes if metformin and either sulphonylureas or prandial glucose regulators are not successful in lowering blood glucose levels adequately.
How Do Glitazones Work?
TZDs work by targeting the PPAR-gamma receptor, which produces new fat cells, and those cells are actually more sensitive to insulin, they allow insulin to do its job.
TZDs can, therefore, help boost insulin sensitivity and preserve the function of insulin-producing cells, but they do raise the risk of weight gain.
Medications in the Thiazolidinediones Family
(First generic name then brand name)
It can be used on its own as a monotherapy or as combination treatment with either a sulphonylurea or metformin or insulin.Pioglitazone is combined with the metformin (Actoplus Met) and the sulfonylurea medicine glimepiride (Duetact).
Rosiglitazone is combined with sulfonylurea medicine glimepiride (Avandaryl) and the metformin (Avandamet).
Side effects of Thiazolidinediones
Thiazolidinediones, have been varying side effects between different individual drugs within the class.
The first-generation of thiazolidinediones caused severe liver damage in some people. The second-generation TZDs shouldn’t do that, although it’s still something to keep in mind, particularly if you already have liver problems.
Side effects of glitazones may include:
- Weight gain
- Water retention, This may lead to heart failure.
- Eyesight problems
- Reduced sense of touch
- Chest pain and infections
- Allergic skin reactions
- Muscle pain.
- Liver failure
- Bone fracture
- Runny or stuffy nose, sore throat.