Scabies: Scabies is a clinical condition where an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the skin where it lives and lays its eggs.
The main symptom of the scabies is intense itching that’s are worse at night and disturbing sleep. It affects the trunk and limbs, sparing the scalp. Scabies burrows are 0.5–1.5 cm grey irregular tracks in the web spaces between fingers, palms of the hand and wrists. Burrows may also be found in elbows, nipples, armpits, buttocks, penis, and heels. Scabies rash is a hypersensitivity reaction that may arise several weeks after initial infestation.
Scabies is usually spread through skin-to-skin contact with an infected person, or through sexual contact.
It’s also possible for scabies to be passed on by sharing clothing, towels, and bedding with someone who already infected.
It may take up to eight weeks for symptoms of scabies to appear after initial infection. This period is known as the incubation period.
Diagnosis of scabies infestation conventionally is made predicated upon the customary appearance and distribution of the rash and the presence of burrows.
The diagnosis of scabies is confirmed by identifying the mite or mite eggs or fecal matter. This may be done by carefully removing the mite from the cessation of its burrow using the tip of a needle or by obtaining a skin scraping to examine under a microscope for mites, eggs, or mite fecal matter. A person can still be infected even if mites, eggs, or fecal matter cannot be found; fewer than 10-15 mites may be present in an infected person who is otherwise salubrious(healthy).
The two most common treatments for scabies are malathion lotion and permethrin cream. Both medications contain insecticides that kill scabies mite.
Permethrin 5% cream may be recommended as the first treatment. Malathion 0.5% lotion is used if permethrin is not effective.
The lotion or cream should be applied to a clean body and left on for the recommended time before washing it off. Clean clothing should be worn after treatment.
Scabies may sometimes lead to secondary skin infection if the skin becomes irritated and inflamed through excessive itching.
Crusted scabies is the rare but more severe form of scabies, where a large number of mites are in the skin. This may develop in older people who have a lowered immunity.