Neck Muscles: The neck muscles are divided into four groups of muscles-
The suboccipital muscles are a group of four muscles located under the occipital bone. All the muscles are innervated by the suboccipital nerve.
They are located deep in the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, splenius and semispinalis muscles. They are collectively acting to extend and rotate the head.
- Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
- Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
- Obliquus Capitis Inferior
- Obliquus Capitis Superior
The suprahyoid are a group of four muscles, positioned superiorly to the hyoid bone of the neck. They are collectively acting to elevate the hyoid bone – an action involved in swallowing.
The arterial supply to these muscles of the facial artery, occipital artery, and lingual artery.
The infrahyoid are a group of four muscles that are positioned inferiorly to the hyoid bone in the neck. They can be classified into two groups:
Superficial Muscles – omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles.
Deep Muscles – sternothyroid and thyrohyoid muscles.
The arterial supply via the superior and inferior thyroid arteries, with venous drainage via similar veins.
The scalene muscles are three paired muscles, located in the lateral aspect of the neck. Collectively, they form part of the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck.
The scalenes perform as accessory muscles of respiration and produce flexion at the neck.