Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), also known as lupus, is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in many components of the body. Inflammation induced by lupus can affect many various body systems, including your joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart, and lungs.
Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can weaken any part of the body. “Chronic” implies that the signs and symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and usually for many years.
Lupus can be tricky to diagnose because its signs and symptoms usually mimic those of other ailments. The most notable sign of lupus — a facial rash that matches the wings of a butterfly unfolding across both cheeks — happens in many but not all cases of lupus.
Some people are born with a bias toward developing lupus, which may be triggered by infections, some drugs or even sunlight. While there’s no cure for lupus, treatments can assist control symptoms.
Over 90% of SLE occur in women that frequently start at childbearing age.
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Symptoms of Lupus
A chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any organ system; its presentation is highly variable, ranging from indolent to fulminant.
In childhood SLE, several clinical symptoms are more commonly found than in adults, that includes malar rash, ulcers or mucocutaneous involution, renal involution, proteinuria, urinary cellular casts, seizures, thrombocytopenia, pyrexia, hemolytic anemia, and lymphadenopathy.
In adults, Raynaud pleuritis and sicca are as prevalent as in children and adolescents. The classic presentation of a triad of pyrexia, joint pain, and rash in the woman of childbearing age should prompt a distinguishing feature of SLE.
Patients may also present with any of the following manifestations:
- Fatigue, pyrexia, weight changes (Constitutional)
- Arthralgia, arthropathy, myalgia, frank arthritis, avascular necrosis (Musculoskeletal)
- Malar rash, photosensitivity, discoid lupus (Dermatologic)
- Acute or chronic renal failure, acute nephritic disease (Renal)
- Seizure, psychosis (Neuropsychiatric)
- Pleurisy, pneumonitis, pleural effusion
- Pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung disease (Pulmonary)
- Nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain (Gastrointestinal)
- Pericarditis, myocarditis (Cardiac)
- Cytopenias such as leukopenia, lymphopenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia (Hematologic)
Causes of Lupus
SLE is an autoimmune condition, which betokens it’s caused by quandaries(problem) with the immune system. Reasons of SLE is unknown, the immune system in people with SLE commences to assail and inflame healthy tissues and organs.
Other’s autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, it’s through an amalgamation of genetic and environmental factors may responsible for triggering the SLE in certain people.
In most cases, the SLE occur in women of childbearing age. The condition inclines to be less in white people of European origin and more in African, Caribbean and Asian origin.
Diagnosed with lupus, you must have 4 out of 11 prevalent designations of the disease. Proximately all people with lupus have a positive test for antinuclear antibody (ANA). However, a positive ANA alone does not mean lupus.
The physicians also do a consummate physical exam. That’s are may have a rash, arthritis or edema in ankles. There may be an aberrant(abnormal) sound a heart friction rub or pleural friction rub. Your physicians will also a nervous system exam.
Tests are used to diagnose SLE may include:
- Antinuclear antibody
- Chest x-ray
- Serum creatinine
You may also have other tests to learn more about your condition. Some of these are:
- Antinuclear antibody (ANA) panel
- Complement components (C3 and C4)
- Coombs test
- Rheumatoid factor test
- ESR and CRP
- Kidney function test
- Liver function test
- Antiphospholipid antibodies
- Lupus anticoagulant test
- Kidney biopsy
Management of Lupus
Management of SLE depends on the individual patient’s symptom and disease manifestations, hydroxychloroquine has a central role in long-term treatment for all SLE patients.
Medications used to treat SLE manifestations include the following:
- Antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine)
- Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, prednisone), short-term recommended
- Non-biologic DMARDs: Cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine,
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac)
- Biologic DMARDs ( Belimumab, rituximab, IV immune globulin
Complications of Lupus
lupus Symptoms of nephritis can comprise:
• Swelling of feet (edema)
• Frequent need to urinate
• Blood in your urine
Lupus nephritis can additionally cause high blood pressure. If untreated, it can risk of developing life-threatening problems such as a heart attack.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a type of health condition that affects the heart and arteries. It’s often associated with blood clots and atherosclerosis.
Examples of Cardiovascular disease include:
• Coronary heart disease
• Heart attack
SLE doesn’t normally affect fertility, but it can enhance your risk of enduring pregnancy difficulties, such as:
• Pre-eclampsia ( high blood pressure during pregnancy)
• Premature delivery