Kidney Failure: Kidney failure known as renal insufficiency or renal failure, is a medical condition characterized by impaired kidney function fail to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood.
The main two forms of kidney failure-
Acute kidney injury, which can be reversible with adequate treatment
Chronic kidney disease, which is often not reversible.
Kidney failure is determined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, that is the rate at which blood is filtered in glomeruli of the kidney. The condition is detected by a decrementation in or absence of urine engendered or tenacity of waste products (creatinine or urea) in the blood. Depending on the cause, hematuria ( loss of blood in the urine) and proteinuria ( loss of protein in the urine) may be noted.
In kidney failure, there may be problems with incremented(increased) fluid in the body (leading to swelling), incremented acid levels, raised levels of potassium, decremented levels of calcium, incremented levels of phosphate, and in later stages anaemia. Bone health may withal be affected. Long-term kidney problems are associated with an incremented risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Causes of Kidney Failure
A sudden loss of blood flow to the kidneys can prompt kidney failure. Some conditions that can cause loss of blood flow to the kidneys to include:
- A heart attack
- Heart disease
- Severe burn
- Scarring of the liver(liver failure)
- Allergic reaction
- Severe infection, such as sepsis
When the body can’t eliminate urine, toxins build up and that overload the kidneys. Some cancers may block the urine passageways. These include prostate (men), colon, cervical, and bladder cancers. Other conditions can interfere with urination and lead to kidney failure, including:
- Kidney stones
- Enlarged prostate
- Blood clots within the urinary tract
- Damage nerves that control bladder
Other Causes of Kidney Failure
Some conditions may lead to kidney failure, including:
- The blood clot in or around your kidneys
- Drugs and alcohol
- Vasculitis, an inflammation of blood vessels
- Lupus, an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation of many body organs
- Glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome, the break down red blood cells following a bacterial infection, usually in the intestines
- Multiple myeloma, cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow
- Scleroderma, an autoimmune disease that affects the skin
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a disorder that causes blood clots in the small vessels
- Certain chemotherapy drugs, that treat cancer and some autoimmune diseases
- Dyes that used in some imaging tests
- Certain antibiotics
Kidney Failure Symptoms
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) conventionally gets worse gradually, and symptoms may not appear until your kidneys are lamentably damaged. In the tardy stages of CKD, as you are nearing kidney failure (ESRD), you may notice symptoms that are caused by waste and extra fluid building up in the body.
You may notice one or more of the following symptoms if kidneys are commencing to fail:
- Trouble catching your breath
- An extravagant amount of urine (pee) or not enough urine
- Swelling in feet and ankles
- Not feeling hungry
- Nausea and regurgitating
- Muscle cramps
- Trouble in sleeping
If kidneys stop working suddenly (acute kidney failure), you may notice one or more of the following symptoms:
- Abdominal Pain
- Back pain
- Pyrexia( fever)
- Regurgitating(Vomiting)Having one or more of the symptoms above may be a designation of kidney problems. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your medico right away.
Kidney Failure Diagnostic approach
Stages of kidney failure
Chronic kidney failure is quantified in five stages, which are calculated utilizing a patient’s GFR, or glomerular filtration rate. Stage 1 kidney failure is mildly diminished renal function, with few symptoms. Stages 2 and 3 of kidney failure need incrementing levels of auxiliary care from their medical providers to slow and treat their renal dysfunction. Patients in stages 4 and 5 of kidney failure customarily require preparation of the patient towards active treatment in order to survive. Stage 5 of kidney failure is considered a severe illness and need some form of renal supersession therapy (dialysis) or kidney transplant whenever feasible.
Glomerular filtration rate
Normal GFR varies according to many factors, that includes sex, age, body size, and ethnic background. Renal professionals consider the glomerular filtration rate to be the best overall index of kidney function. The National Kidney Foundation offers a facile to utilize on-line GFR calculator for anyone who is intrigued with kenning their glomerular filtration rate. (serum creatinine level, simple blood test, is needed to utilize the calculator.)
Utilization of the term uremia
Before the advancement of modern medicine, renal failure often referred to as uremic poisoning. Uremia was the term for the contamination of blood within the urine. It is the presence of an extortionate amount of urea in the blood. Starting around 1847, this included reduced urine output, which was thought to be caused by the urine commixing with the blood in lieu of being voided through the urethra. The term uremia is now utilized for the illness accompanying kidney failure.
Treatment of kidney failure
There is no cure for kidney failure, but many people live long while having dialysis or having a kidney transplant.
There are several types of dialysis for treating kidney failure and kidney transplant. Your physicians can help you figure out which treatment is best for you.
A whole food, plant-based diet help some people with kidney disease. A high protein diet from animal or plant sources appears have negative effects on kidney function.