Heart Anatomy: The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood into the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as aids in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is positioned between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.
Anatomy of the Heart
Pericardium : The heart sits inside a fluid-filled cavity called the pericardial cavity. The walls and covering of the pericardial cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium. The pericardium is a kind of serous membrane that produces serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction within the ever beating heart and its surrounding organs.
Structure of the Heart Wall : The heart wall is consist of 3 layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
Epicardium-The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart wall and also known as a visceral layer of the pericardium. Epicardium is a thin layer of serous membrane that helps to lubricate and protect the outside of the heart. Below the epicardium a thicker layer of the heart wall known as myocardium.
Myocardium- The myocardium is the muscular middle layer of the heart wall that contains cardiac muscle tissue. Myocardium makes up the majority mass of the heart wall and is the part of the heart responsible for pumping blood. Below the myocardium, a thin layer is known as the endocardium layer.
Endocardium- Endocardium a simple squamous endothelium layer that lines the inside of the heart. The endocardium is quite smooth and is able of keeping blood from sticking to the inside of the heart and forming potentially deadly blood clots.
Chambers of the Heart:
The heart is divided into four chambers-upper right and left atria; and lower right and left ventricles.
Circulatory System in the Heart
The right atrium receives blood from the veins and pumps it to the right ventricle and pumps it to the lungs, where it is loaded with oxygen.
The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.
The coronary arteries travel along the surface of the heart and provide oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Arterial Supply of the Heart:
Right Coronary Artery (RCA)
Left Main Coronary Artery
The right coronary artery branches into:
Right marginal artery
Posterior descending artery
The right coronary artery supplies:
2.Right ventricle & posterior 1/3rd of IV septum
The left main coronary artery branches into:
1. Circumflex artery – supplies blood to the left atrium, side and back of the left ventricle
2.Left Anterior Descending artery (LAD) – supplies the front and bottom of the left ventricle and the front of the septum
You Might Also Like:
- Hepatitis B: Causes,Symptom,Prevention & Treatment
- Hepatitis C: Causes,Symptom,Prevention & Treatment
- 7 Dangerous acts after a meal
Nerve Supply of the Heart
The heart is supplied by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres. Sympathetic nerves stimulate both the heart rate and blood pressure and dilate coronary arteries. The sensory fibres convey painful impulses from the heart. Parasympathetic fibres lower the heart rate. Their sensory fibres are associated with visceral reflexes.
Normal Blood Pressure & Heart Rate
Healthy and unhealthy blood pressure ranges-
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats a minute.
- Coronary artery disease
- Stable angina pectoris
- Unstable angina pectoris
- Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
- Arrhythmia (dysrhythmia)
- Congestive heart failure
- Pericardial effusion
- Atrial fibrillation
- Pulmonary embolism
- Heart valve disease
- Heart murmur
- Mitral valve prolapsed
- Sudden cardiac death
- Cardiac arrest
Test for Cardiac Condition
- Cardiac stress test
- Cardiac catheterization
- Holter monitor
- Event monitor
Exercise: Regular exercise is important for a healthy heart and most heart conditions. Talk to your physicians before starting an exercise program if you have heart problems.
Angioplasty: During cardiac catheterization, a surgeon inflates a balloon inside a narrowed or blocked the coronary artery to widen the artery.
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI): Angioplasty is also known as PCI or PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) by physicians.
Coronary artery stenting: During cardiac catheterization, a surgeon expands a wire metal stent inside a narrowed or blocked the coronary artery to open up the area.
Thrombolysis: “Clot-busting” drugs injected into the veins that can dissolve a blood clot causing a heart attack.
Lipid-lowering agents: Cholesterol (lipid) lowering drugs reduce the risk of heart attack in high-risk people.
Diuretics: This medication reduces blood volume, improving symptoms of heart failure.
Beta-blockers: These blood pressure medicines reduce strain on the heart and lower heart rate.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors): These medicines also help the heart after some heart attacks or also in congestive heart failure.
Aspirin: This powerful medicine helps prevent blood clots.
Clopidogrel (Plavix): A clot-preventing medicine. Clopidogrel is especially important for many people who have had stents placed.
Antiarrhythmic medications: medicationMedicines that help control the heart’s rate and electrical rhythm. These medications prevent and control arrhythmias.
AED (automated external defibrillator): If someone has a sudden cardiac arrest, an AED can be used to assess the heart rhythm and send an electrical shock to the heart if necessary.
ICD (Implantable cardioverter defibrillator): If you are at risk for a life-threatening arrhythmia, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator will be surgically implanted to monitor the heart rhythm and send an electrical shock to the heart if necessary.
Pacemaker: To maintain a stable heart rate.