Headache : Types,Causes & Medication

Headache : Headache is the symptom of pain wherever in the region of the head or neck. Headaches are one of the most frequent medical complaints; most people endure them at some point in their life. It happens in migraines (sharp pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches.headache types

Types & Causes of Headaches

Primary headaches

Primary headaches are precipitated directly by the overactivity or problems with structures in the head that are pain-sensitive.
This comprises the blood vessels, muscles, and nerves of the head and neck.
Common primary headaches are tension headaches, migraines, and cluster headaches.

Secondary headaches

Secondary headaches happen while another situation stimulates the pain-sensitive nerves of the head. A wide range of varying factors can cause secondary headaches-
• Alcohol-induced hangover
• Brain tumor
• Blood clots
• Stroke
• Carbon monoxide poisoning
• Dehydration
• Concussion
• Glaucoma
• Teeth-grinding at night
• Influenza
• Overuse of pain medication
• Panic attacks

Tension headaches

Tension headaches, the most common type, feel like a constant ache or pressure around the head, especially at the temples or back of the head and neck. It isn’t throbbing. Tenderness around the neck, forehead, scalp, or shoulder muscles also may occur.
A tension headache, are often triggered by stress.
An over-the-counter (OTC) medication may be all it takes to relieve your symptoms. This includes:
• Aspirin
• Acetaminophen
• Acetaminophen and caffeine
• Ibuprofen

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches, that affect more men than women, are recurring headaches that happen in groups or cycles. Cluster headaches are a rare type of a headache that happens in clusters for a month or approximately two at a time around the same time of year.
They develop suddenly and are discriminated by severe, debilitating pain on one side of the head, and are often accompanied by a watery eye and nasal congestion or a runny nose on the same side of the face.

The cause of cluster headaches is unexplored, but there may be a genetic component. There is no cure, but medicine can cut the frequency and duration.

Physicians aren’t sure what makes cluster headaches, but they do know some efficient ways to treat the symptoms. Your physician may advise oxygen therapy, sumatriptan (Imitrex) or local anesthetic (lidocaine) to provide pain relief.
After a diagnosis is made, your physician will make a prevention plan. Corticosteroids, melatonin, topiramate, and calcium channel blockers may put your cluster headaches into a period of remission.


Migraines are less prevalent than tension headaches. Migraine pain is an intense pulsing from deep within your head. They usually last at least a couple of hours, and some people find they need to stay in bed for days at a time.A headache significantly narrows your ability to carry out your daily routine. Migraines are throbbing and usually one-sided. Some people also have other symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light or sound.

Migraines might run in your family, or be connected with other nervous system conditions. Women are three times more liable to develop migraines than men. Certain environmental factors, such as sleep disruption, dehydration, skipped meals, some foods, hormone fluctuations, and exposure to chemicals are common migraine triggers.
If OTC pain relievers(Aspirin, Acetaminophen, Acetaminophen and caffeine) don’t reduce your migraine pain during an attack, your doctor might prescribe-
• Sumatriptan
• Rizatriptan
• Almotriptan

They come in the form of nasal sprays, pills, and injections.

If you undergo headaches that are incapacitating more than three days a month, talk to your physician about taking a daily medication to prevent your headaches.
Research explains that preventative medications are significantly underused. Preventing migraine greatly improves quality of life and productivity.
Useful preventative medications include:
• Propranolol
• Metoprolol
• Topamax
• Amitriptyline

Sinus headaches

Headaches sometimes occur as a result of an allergic reaction. These headaches are frequently focused in your sinus area and in the front of your head.
Migraine headaches are generally misdiagnosed as sinus headaches. In fact, up to 90 percent of “sinus headaches” are really migraines. People who have chronic sinusitis are susceptible to these kinds of headaches.
Sinus headaches are managed with -Nasal steroid sprays, OTC decongestants such as phenylephrine, or antihistamines such as cetirizine may help with this.
A sinus headache can also be a manifestation of a sinus infection. In these cases, your physician may prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection and alleviate your headache and other symptoms.