Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that was also known as manic-depressive illness, that causes unusual shifts in mood, activity levels, energy, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.
Bipolar Disorder Types
There are four types of bipolar disorder; all of them are changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” and energized behaviour (manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless (depressive episodes). Less severe manic are known as hypomanic episodes.
- Bipolar I Disorder— manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so rigorous that the person needs immediate hospital care. Customarily, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with commixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are withal possible.
- Bipolar II Disorder— a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.
- Cyclothymic Disorder (known as cyclothymia)— numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms as well as numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (children and adolescents in 1 year). However, symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic and a depressive episode.
Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar Disorders—bipolar disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.
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Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme swings of the mood. These can range from extreme highs (mania) to extreme lows (depression).
Mania and depression often last for several weeks or months.
During the depression, symptoms may include:
- Feeling sad, hopeless or irritable most of the time
- Difficulty concentrating and remembering things
- Loss of interest in daily activities
- Feelings of worthlessness
- Feelings of guilt
- Feeling pessimistic about everything
- Lacking energy
- Being delusional, having hallucinations and illogical thinking
- Difficulty sleeping
- Waking up early
- Lack of appetite
- Suicidal thoughts
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder may include:
- Feeling very happy or overjoyed
- Feeling full of energy
- Talking very quickly
- Feeling self-important
- Being delusional, having hallucinations and disturbed or illogical thinking
- Being easily irritated or agitated
- Feeling full of great new ideas and having important plans
- Not feeling like sleeping
- Not eating
- Making decisions or saying that is out of character and that see as being risky or harmful
- Spending large sums of money on expensive and sometimes unaffordable items
Patterns of Depression and Mania
People with bipolar disorder may have episodes of depression more regularly than the episodes of mania, or vice versa.
Between depression and mania, may sometimes have periods where have a “normal” mood.
If the mood swings last a long time but aren’t severe enough to classed as bipolar disorder, you may be diagnosed with cyclothymia ( the mild form of bipolar disorder).
Causes of Bipolar Disorder
The cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but there are a number of factors that work together to make a person more likely to develop the condition. These are a complex mix of physical, environmental and social factors.
- Chemical imbalance in the brain
- Bipolar disorder is the result of chemical imbalances in the brain.
- he chemicals are responsible for controlling the brain’s functions are called the neurotransmitters and include noradrenaline, noradrenaline dopamine, and serotonin.
For example, in the episodes of mania may noradrenaline levels are too high, and in episodes of depression result of noradrenaline levels becoming too low.
It’s additionally thought bipolar disorder is linked to genetics, as the condition seems to run in families. The family members of a person with the condition have an incremented risk of developing it themselves.
However, no single gene is not responsible for bipolar disorder. A number of genetic and environmental factors are thought to act as triggers.
Bipolar disorder may trigger by:
- Sleep disturbances
- Physical illness
- Unusual problems in daily life – such as problems with money, work or relationships
Treatments and Medication of Bipolar Disorder
Treatment helps many people—even those with the most severe forms of bipolar disorder of their mood swings and other bipolar symptoms. An efficacious treatment plan customarily includes a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Bipolar disorder is a perpetual illness. Episodes of mania and depression typically come back over time. Between episodes, many people with bipolar disorder are free of mood changes, but some people may have lingering symptoms. Long-term, perpetual treatment avails to control these symptoms.
Different types of medications can avail control symptoms of bipolar disorder. An individual may need to endeavour several different medications before finding ones that the work best.
Medications generally used to treat bipolar disorder include:
- Mood stabilizer
- Atypical antipsychotics
Anyone taking medication should:
- Talk with a doctor to understand the risks and benefits of medication
- Report any concerns about side effects to a doctor. The doctor may change the dose or try a different medication.
- Avoid stopping medication without talking doctor. Suddenly stopping medication can lead to “rebound” or worsening the bipolar disorder symptoms.
The combination with medication, psychotherapy (known as “talk therapy”) treatment can be effective for bipolar disorder. It can provide support, education, and guidance to people with bipolar disorder and their families. Some psychotherapy treatments used to treat bipolar disorder include:
- Family-focused therapy
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
- Interpersonal and social therapy
Other Treatment Options
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) can provide relief for people with a severe bipolar disorder who have not to recover with other treatments. Sometimes ECT is used for bipolar symptoms when other conditions, including pregnancy, make taking medications too risky. ECT can cause some short-term side effects, including confusion, memory loss, and disorientation. People with bipolar disorder should discuss the benefits and risks of ECT.
Sleep Medications: People with bipolar disorder have trouble sleeping usually find that treatment is helpful. Though, if sleeplessness does not amend, your doctor may suggest a change in medications. If the problem continues, the physicians may prescribe sedatives or other sleep medications.